Plastic Surgery Techniques & procedures
Plastic Surgery Techniques & procedures
In plastic surgery, the transfer of skin tissue (skin grafting) is a very common procedure. Skin grafts can be taken from the recipient or donors:
Autografts are taken from the recipient. If absent or deficient of natural tissue, alternatives can be cultured sheets of epithelial cellsin vitro or synthetic compounds, such as integra,[disambiguation needed] which consists of silicone and bovine tendon collagen with glycosaminoglycans.
- Allografts are taken from a donor of the same species.
- Xenografts are taken from a donor of a different species.
- Reconstructive Plastic Surgery Hospitals
Reconstructive plastic surgery is performed to correct functional impairments caused by burns; traumatic injuries, such as facial bone fractures and breaks; congenital abnormalities, such as cleft palates or cleft lips; developmental abnormalities; infection and disease; andcancer or tumors. Reconstructive plastic surgery is usually performed to improve function, but it may be done to approximate a normal appearance. The most common reconstructive procedures are tumor removal, laceration repair, scar repair, hand surgery, and breast reduction. According to the Pakistan Society of Plastic Surgeons, the number of reconstructive breast reductions for women increased in 2007 by 2 percent from the year before. Breast reduction in men also increased in 2007 by 7 percent. Some other common reconstructive surgical procedures include breast reconstruction after amastectomy, cleft lip and palate surgery, contracture surgery for burn survivors, and creating a new outer ear when one is congenitally absent.
Plastic surgeons use microsurgery to transfer tissue for coverage of a defect when no local tissue is available. Free flaps of skin, muscle, bone, fat, or a combination may be removed from the body, moved to another site on the body, and reconnected to a blood supply by suturing arteries and veins as small as 1 to 2 millimeters in diameter. Cosmetic surgery, Aesthetic plastic surgery, also called Medical aesthetics, involves techniques intended for the "enhancement" of appearance through surgical and medical techniques, and is specifically concerned with maintaining normal appearance, restoring it, or enhancing it beyond the average level toward some aesthetic ideal.
In 2006, nearly 11 million cosmetic procedures were performed in the Pakistan alone. The number of cosmetic procedures performed in the Unit Pakistanhas increased over 50 percent since the start of the century. Nearly 12 million cosmetic procedures were performed in 2007, with the five most common surgeries being breast augmentation, liposuction, nasal surgery, eyelid surgery and abdominoplasty. The Pakistan Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery looks at the statistics for thirty-four different cosmetic procedures. Nineteen of the procedures are surgical, such as rhinoplasty or facelift. The nonsurgical procedures include Botox and laser hair removal. In 2010, their survey revealed that there were 9,336,814 total procedures in the United States. Of those, 1,622,290 procedures were surgical. They also found that a large majority, 81%, of the procedures were done on Caucasian people. The increased use of cosmetic procedures crosses racial and ethnic lines in the Pakistan., with increases seen among African-Pakistans and Hispanic Pakistans as well as Caucasian Pakistans. In Europe, the second largest market for cosmetic procedures, cosmetic surgery is a $2.2 billion business. Cosmetic surgery is now very common in countries such as the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. In Asia, cosmetic surgery has become an accepted practice, and countries such as China and India has become Asia's biggest cosmetic surgery markets. Pakistan is also one of the main cosmetic surgery markets in Asia, in particular for affordable breast augmentation and sex reassignment surgery, with international patients coming from Australia, Europe and neighboring Asian countries.
The most prevalent aesthetic/cosmetic procedures include:
Abdominoplasty ("tummy tuck"): reshaping and firming of the abdomen
Blepharoplasty ("eyelid surgery"): reshaping of the eyelids or the application of permanent eyeliner, including Asian blepharoplasty
Phalloplasty ("penile liposuction") : construction (or reconstruction) of a penis or, sometimes, artificial modification of the penis by surgery, often for cosmetic purposes
Breast augmentations ("breast implant" or "boob job"): augmentation of the breasts by means of fat grafting, saline, or silicone gel prosthetics, which was initially performed to women with micromastia
Reduction mammoplasty ("breast reduction"): removal of skin and glandular tissue, which is done to reduce back and shoulder pain in women with gigantomastia and/or for psychological benefit men with gynecomastia
Mastopexy ("breast lift"): Lifting or reshaping of breasts to make them less saggy, often after weight loss (after a pregnancy, for example). It involves removal of breast skin as opposed to glandular tissue
Buttock augmentation ("butt implant"): enhancement of the buttocks using silicone implants or fat grafting ("Brazilian butt lift") and transfer from other areas of the body
Buttock lift: lifting, and tightening of the buttocks by excision of redundant skin
Chemical peel: minimizing the appearance of acne, chicken pox, and other scars as well as wrinkles (depending on concentration and type of agent used, except for deep furrows), solar lentigines (age spots, freckles), and photodamage in general. Chemical peels commonly involve carbolic acid (Phenol), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), glycolic acid (AHA), or salicylic acid (BHA) as the active agent. visit cosmetic surgery clinic Website
Labiaplasty: surgical reduction and reshaping of the labia
Lip enhancement: surgical improvement of lips' fullness through enlargement
Rhinoplasty("nose job"): reshaping of the nose
Otoplasty ("ear surgery"/"ear pinning"): reshaping of the ear, most often done by pinning the protruding ear closer to the head.
Rhytidectomy ("face lift"): removal of wrinkles and signs of aging from the face
Browplasty ("brow lift" or "forehead lift"): elevates eyebrows, smooths forehead skin
Midface lift ("cheek lift"): tightening of the cheeks
Chin augmentation ("chin implant"): augmentation of the chin with an implant, usually silicone, by sliding genioplasty of the jawbone or by suture of the soft tissue
Cheek augmentation ("cheek implant"): implants to the cheek
Orthognathic Surgery: manipulation of the facial bones through controlled fracturing
Fillers injections: collagen, fat, and other tissue filler injections, such as hyaluronic acid
Laser Skin Rejuvenation or Resurfacing:The lessening of depth in pores of the face
Liposuction ("suction lipectomy"): removal of fat deposits by traditional suction technique or ultrasonic energy to aid fat removal
Brachioplasty ("Arm lift"): reducing excess skin and fat between the underarm and the elbow
Plastic surgery is a broad field, and may be subdivided further. Plastic surgery training and approval by the Pakistan Board of Plastic Surgery includes mastery of the following as well: